The quality of the grain seeds can be defined by some external factors as well as by its biological characteristics. It is very difficult to control all the factors that affect the grain seed during its time of germination. But there is however, a defined set of methods in the agriculture industry that reduce the negative effects of the undesirable factors and intensify the effects of the factors that benefit an increased harvest yield.
The pre-sowing stimulation and disinfection
can be defined as the seed-preparation procedures that are considered to be essential.
The methods of the pre-sowing treatment can be divided into the following groups: (1) biological; (2) chemical; and (3) physical.
The biological methods
consist in the seeds being soaked in different extracts that include desirable vitamins and enzymes. But, these methods have some disadvantages such as:
(1) the promotoring agents are difficult to obtain;
(2) multiple tests are needed to meter desirable doses; and
(3) the seeds may react to one substance in different ways.
The chemical methods
consist in the seeds being processed by special chemical inputs such as:
(1) inhibitors; and
(2) major mineral elements and their salts.
The main disadvantage of the chemical methods is that the substances being used are very toxic. Additionally, they can have a negative impact on human health while decomposing.
The physical methods
of the treatment of grain can be divided into such groups as (1) physical and mechanical methods; (2) thermal methods; and radiation methods.
and chemical methods
, ultrasonic water treatment
, and scarification
. Their disadvantages are as follows:
(1) long processing time;
(2) the seeds need to be pre-dried; and
(3) considerable labor resources are required.
, steam treatment
, and variable temperature
exposure are considered to be the thermal methods
. But, these methods also have disadvantages such as:
(1) long processing time; and
(2) a set temperature needs to be constantly maintained.
The radiation methods
involve processing of grain by ionizing radiation.
The electro physical methods of pre-sowing treatments are of special interest nowadays. They include: (1) exposure to magnetic fields with different frequencies; or (2) exposure to electromagnetic energy of infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) spectra.
The pre-sowing treatment of grain by electromagnetic fields with microwave frequencies is considered to have gained widespread acceptance as among of all electro-physical methods.
has developed the “Vortex layer” machine type AVS-100
to solve a wide spectrum of problems that the agricultural industry has faced for many years. This machine is shaped like a cylinder and is made from non-magnetic materials. On the outside of the cylinder there is a mounted inductor with windings that create the electromagnetic field. It should be noted that this machine ensures not only the pre-sowing treatment of grain, but also its disinsection and disinfection.
The pre-sowing stimulation causes the seeds react to an external irritant that is more intensive than the threshold value. The energy of the microwave frequencies, supplied to the seeds, initiate the reactions. The reactions take place in the seed cells due to their own energy resources.
The microwave frequencies result in the increased amount of free radicals (unpaired electrons) that benefit such processes as: (1) the permeability of the cell membrane changes; (2) speeding up the oxidative reactions; (3) the enzymes are activated; and (4) nucleic acids are synthesized. The processes, described above contribute to dormancy breaking and growth activation.