A separator is a device used for the removal of water and mechanical impurities from diesel fuels. Unwanted components can get into oil products many different ways. Among these are improper distillation and incorrect handling or storage as well as condensation occurring in equipment fuel tanks.
Ues of contaminated diesel fuel is highly undesirable because it ultimately can lead to significant damage to both the motor and entire fuel system. Water in the fuel is the cause of increased fuel consumption and reduced engine power. Fuel/Water Separators are specifically designed for handling the job of diesel fuel purification.
There are many different models of fule/water separators available in the automovive/industrial market and are divided into two types:
- devices without fuel heating; and
- devices with fuel heating
Fule/water separators of the second type not only cope with removal of water and mechanical impurities, but also help engines to work well in conditions of low and/or freezing temperatures. Fuel heating helps eliminate the need for pre-heating the vehicle in cold and freezing weather. The heating element is usually located inside the sump. It heats diesel fuel while melting paraffin at the same time.
As a general matter, fuel purification by means of separators can be described by the following three stages:
- The Initial Stage of Purification. After entering the separator by passing through special channels, the fuel swirls on a centrifuge principle. Under these conditions, extraneous components that have weight that exceeds the weight of the fuel will gravitate to the bottom of the sump.
- The Intermediate Stage of Purification. The rotation of the blades stimulates the diesel fuel to move upwards. The direction of flow changes abruptly and those smaller particles, that did not gravitate during the first stage, are accumulated on the blades. After reaching a certain mass, they roll down to the flask bottom.
- The Final Stage of Purification. Diesel fuel is passed through a special pleated filter (cartridge). The fineness of of filter is able yo fully remove microparticles. After the filtering/purification process, the fuel is supplied to the engine.