Stove Fuel: Characteristics, Application and Decoloration

The distinct difference that strikes the eye when comparing stove and diesel fuels is the viscosity level and the fractional composition.  Diesel fuel is lighter.  Stove fuel is mainly used for heating, in particular, in places where special stoves are mounted. The advantages of such a substance as stove fuel include the absence of strong smell that is found in most other oil products.  To be used in the industry, the ignition temperature of stove fuel should be above +40ºС and the freezing temperature no more than -28 ºС. When burning fuel, it is desirable to increase the temperature since there is a risk of gas condensation in pipes.  The storage of such energy products as stove fuel requires additional heat to maintain the viscosity at the desired level.  This product is transported in special tanks that are equipped with a drain valve, an air escape valve and a valve that regulates pressure.  Inside, the tanks are covered with a special substance that prevents the surface from making contact with gasoline or motor oil.  Tanks are allowed to be filled to no more than at 95% of their volume.  Small batches of stove fuel can be transported in canisters made of polymer or metal. The main characteristics of stove fuel include:
  • flashpoint;
  • crystallizing temperature;
  • no smell when burning; and
  • decomposition in fractional components.
Often, stove fuel is used in low power heating systems and heat generators of average capacity.  Stove fuel may be applied for heating living as well as production accommodations and are considered to be two of its main advantages. The comparison of stove fuel with other fuels shows that it has an increased heating value.  Special attention should be paid to the burning units that must be checked on a regular basis.  Besides inspecting the heating equipment, the fuel’s quality should be also checked before use.  It is tested with special testing devices and controllers.  Such a test is considered to be a usual chemical experiment that shows if the product’s composition meets the rated values. Stove oil is considered to be of high quality if it has the following characteristics:
  • 10% of fuel’s fractional composition is  distillated at 160°С and 90% is  distillated at the temperature that is no higher than 360 °С;
  • kinematic viscosity is limited to 8.0 mm2/s at 20°С;
  • the minimal temperature of the flash point in a closed crucible should be 45°С;
  • low-sulphur fuel should contain 0.5% of sulphur, sulphur fuel a maximum of 1.1% of sulphur;
  • acidity should not exceed 5 mg KOH/100 sm3 of fuel;
  • the maximum ash percentage is 0.02;
  • coking of the ten percent residue is no more than 35%; and
  • the density of dark stove oil has no limitations though it should be present.
Also, it should be noted that the cloud point temperature, the cetane and iodine numbers are not standardized.  The optimum temperature to determine density is 20°С. The maximum mass fraction of sulphur during distillation of sulphur crude oil is 1.1%. The color of stove fuel should be light brown, brown or black, depending on its kind and purpose.


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