Glossary

Absorption

The assimilation of one material into another; in petroleum refining, the use of an absorptive liquid to selectively remove components from a process stream.

Acid Number

The quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is required to neutralize the acidic constituents in 1 g of sample.

Acidity

In lubricants, acidity denotes the presence of acid-type constituents whose concentration is usually defined in terms of total acid number. The constituents vary in nature and may or may not markedly influence the behavior of the lubricant.

Additive

A chemical substance added to a petroleum product to impart or improve certain properties. Common petroleum product additives are: antifoam agent, anti-wear additive, corrosion inhibitor, demulsifier, detergent, dispersant, emulsifier, EP additive, oiliness agent, oxidation inhibitor, pour point depressant, rust inhibitor, tackiness agent, viscosity index (VI.) improver.

Adsorbent Filter

A filter medium primarily intended to hold soluble and insoluble contaminants on its surface by molecular adhesion.

Adsorption

Adhesion of the molecules of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances to a solid surface, resulting in relatively high concentration of the molecules at the place of contact; e.g. the plating out of an anti-wear additive on metal surfaces.

Aniline Point

The minimum temperature for complete miscibility of equal volumes of aniline and the sample under test ASTM Method D611. A product of high aniline point will be low in aromatics and naphthenes and, therefore, high in paraffins. Aniline point is often specified for spray oils, cleaning solvents, and thinners, where effectiveness depends upon aromatic content. In conjunction with API gravity, the aniline point may be used to calculate the net heat of combustion for aviation fuels.

Barrel

A unit of liquid volume of petroleum oils equal to 42 U.S. gallons or approximately 35 Imperial gallons.

Base Number

The amount of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide, required to neutralize all basic constituents present in 1 g of sample

Bitumen

Also called asphalt or tar, bitumen is the brown or black viscous residue from the vacuum distillation of crude petroleum. It also occurs in nature as asphalt “lakes” and “tar sands.” It consists of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and minor amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

Black oils

Lubricants containing asphaltic materials, which impart extra adhesiveness, that are used for open gears and steel cables.

Bleeding

The separation of some of the liquid phase from a grease

Blending

The process of mixing lubricants or components for the purpose of obtaining the desired physical and/or chemical properties (see compounding)

Capacity

The amount of contaminants a filter will hold before an excessive pressure drop is caused. Most filters have bypass valves which open when a filter reaches its rated capacity.

Cavitation

Formation of an air or vapor pocket (or bubble) due to lowering of pressure in a liquid, often as a result of a solid body, such as a propeller or piston, moving through the liquid; also, the pitting or wearing away of a solid surface as a result of the violent collapse of a vapor bubble. Cavitation can occur in a hydraulic system as a result of low fluid levels that draw air into the fluid, producing tiny bubbles that expand followed by rapid implosion, causing metal erosion and eventual pump destruction.

Absorption

The assimilation of one material into another; in petroleum refining, the use of an absorptive liquid to selectively remove components from a process stream.

Acid Number

The quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is required to neutralize the acidic constituents in 1 g of sample.

Acidity

In lubricants, acidity denotes the presence of acid-type constituents whose concentration is usually defined in terms of total acid number. The constituents vary in nature and may or may not markedly influence the behavior of the lubricant.

Additive

A chemical substance added to a petroleum product to impart or improve certain properties. Common petroleum product additives are: antifoam agent, anti-wear additive, corrosion inhibitor, demulsifier, detergent, dispersant, emulsifier, EP additive, oiliness agent, oxidation inhibitor, pour point depressant, rust inhibitor, tackiness agent, viscosity index (VI.) improver.

Adsorbent Filter

A filter medium primarily intended to hold soluble and insoluble contaminants on its surface by molecular adhesion.

Adsorption

Adhesion of the molecules of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances to a solid surface, resulting in relatively high concentration of the molecules at the place of contact; e.g. the plating out of an anti-wear additive on metal surfaces.

Aniline Point

The minimum temperature for complete miscibility of equal volumes of aniline and the sample under test ASTM Method D611. A product of high aniline point will be low in aromatics and naphthenes and, therefore, high in paraffins. Aniline point is often specified for spray oils, cleaning solvents, and thinners, where effectiveness depends upon aromatic content. In conjunction with API gravity, the aniline point may be used to calculate the net heat of combustion for aviation fuels.

Barrel

A unit of liquid volume of petroleum oils equal to 42 U.S. gallons or approximately 35 Imperial gallons.

Base Number

The amount of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide, required to neutralize all basic constituents present in 1 g of sample

Bitumen

Also called asphalt or tar, bitumen is the brown or black viscous residue from the vacuum distillation of crude petroleum. It also occurs in nature as asphalt “lakes” and “tar sands.” It consists of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and minor amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

Black oils

Lubricants containing asphaltic materials, which impart extra adhesiveness, that are used for open gears and steel cables.

Bleeding

The separation of some of the liquid phase from a grease

Blending

The process of mixing lubricants or components for the purpose of obtaining the desired physical and/or chemical properties (see compounding)

Capacity

The amount of contaminants a filter will hold before an excessive pressure drop is caused. Most filters have bypass valves which open when a filter reaches its rated capacity.

Cavitation

Formation of an air or vapor pocket (or bubble) due to lowering of pressure in a liquid, often as a result of a solid body, such as a propeller or piston, moving through the liquid; also, the pitting or wearing away of a solid surface as a result of the violent collapse of a vapor bubble. Cavitation can occur in a hydraulic system as a result of low fluid levels that draw air into the fluid, producing tiny bubbles that expand followed by rapid implosion, causing metal erosion and eventual pump destruction.

Chromatography

An analytical technique whereby a complex substance is adsorbed on a solid or liquid substrate and progressively eluted by a flow of a substance (the eluant) in which the components of the substance under investigation are differentially soluble. The eluant can be a liquid or a gas. When the substrate is filter paper and the eluant a liquid, a chromatogram of colored bands can be developed by use of indicators. For gas chromatography, electronic detectors are normally used to indicate passage of the various components from the system.

Coalescor

A separator that divides a mixture or emulsion of two immiscible liquids using the interfacial tension between the two liquids and the difference in wetting of the two liquids on a particular porous medium.

Compounded Oil

A petroleum oil to which has been added other chemical substances.

Dehydrator

A separator that removes water from the system fluid.

Density

The mass of a unit volume of a substance. Its numerical value varies with the units used.

Desorption

Opposite of absorption or adsorption. In filtration, it relates to the downstream release of particles previously retained by the filter.

Detergent Oil

Is a lubricating oil possessing special sludge-dispersing properties usually conferred on the oil by the incorporation of special additives. Detergent oils hold formed sludge particles in suspension and thus promote cleanliness especially in internal-combustion engines. However detergent oils do not contain “detergents” such as those used for cleaning of laundry or dishes. Also detergent oils do not clean already “dirty” engines, but rather keep in suspension the sludge that petroleum oil forms so that the engine remains cleaner for longer period. The formed sludge particles are either filtered out by Oil Filters or drained out when oil is changed.

Dielectric Strength

A measure of the ability of an insulating material to withstand electric stress (voltage) without failure. Fluids with high dielectric strength (usually expressed in volts or kilovolts) are good electrical insulators. (ASTM Designation D 877.)

Electrical Insulating Oil

A high-quality oxidation-resistant oil refined to give long service as a dielectric and coolant for electrical equipment, most commonly transformers. An insulating oil must resist the effects of elevated temperatures, electrical stress, and contact with air, which can lead to sludge formation and loss of insulation properties. It must be kept dry, as water is detrimental to dielectric strength – the minimum voltage required to produce an electric arc through an oil sample, as measured by test method ASTM D 877.

Environmental Contaminant

All material and energy present in and around an operating system, such as dust, air moisture, chemicals, and thermal energy.

Filtration

The physical or mechanical process of separating insoluble particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or liquid, by passing the fluid through a filter medium that will not allow the particulates to pass through it.

Filtration (Beta) Ratio

The ratio of the number of particles greater than a given size in the influent fluid to the number of particles greater than the same size in the effluent fluid.

Fire point (Clevelend Open Cup)

The temperature to which a combustible liquid must be heated so that the released vapor will burn continuously when ignited under specified conditions.

Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup)

The temperature to which a combustible liquid must be heated to give off sufficient vapor to form momentarily a flammable mixture with air when a small flame is applied under specified conditions.

Floc Point

The temperature at which wax or solids separate in an oil

Foam Inhibitor

A substance introduced in a very small proportion to a lubricant or a coolant to prevent the formation of foam due to aeration of the liquid, and to accelerate the dissipation of any foam that may form

Gear Oil

A high-quality oil with good oxidation stability, load-carrying capacity, rust protection, and resistance to foaming, for service in gear housings and enclosed chain drives. Specially formulated industrial EP gear oils are used where highly loaded gear sets or excessive sliding action (as in worm gears) is encountered.

Inhibitor

Any substance that slows or prevents such chemical reactions as corrosion or oxidation.

In-line Filter

A filter assembly in which the inlet, outlet and filter element axes are in a straight line.

Interfacial Tension (IFT)

The energy per unit area present at the boundary of two immiscible liquids. It is usually expressed in dynes/cm

Ion Exchange

A transfer of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. The term normally denotes the processes of purification, separation and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with an insoluble (usually resinous) solid.

Mineral Seal Oil

A distillation fraction between kerosene and gas oil, widely used as a solvent oil in gas adsorption processes, as a lubricant for the rolling of metal foil, and as a base oil in many specialty formulations. Mineral seal oil takes its name – not from any sealing function – but from the fact that it originally replaced oil derived from seal blubber for use as an illuminant for signal lamps and lighthouses.

Multigrade Oil

An oil meeting the requirements of more than one SAE viscosity grade classification, and may therefore be suitable for use over a wider temperature range than a single-grade oil.

Neutralization Number

A measure of the total acidity or basicity of an oil; this includes organic or inorganic acids or bases or a combination thereof

Oil

A greasy, unctuous liquid of vegetable, animal, mineral or synthetic origin.

Oil Analysis

The routine activity of analyzing lubricant properties and suspended contaminants for the purpose of monitoring and reporting timely, meaningful and accurate information on lubricant and machine condition.

Oil Change

The act of replacing dirty oil with clean oil.

Oil Consumption

The amount of lubricating fluid that is consumed by a machine, production line, plant or company over a given period of time.

Oil Filter

A device which removes the inherent or introduced impurities from the oil that lubricates an internal-combustion engine.

Oil Flushing

A fluid circulation process that is designed to remove contamination and decomposition from a lubrication-based system.

Oil Oxidation

Occurs when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. The process is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts and the presence of water, acids, or solid contaminants. It leads to increased viscosity and deposit formation.

Oil Sampling

A procedure which involves the collection of a volume of fluid from lubricated or hydraulic machinery for the purpose of performing oil analysis. Samples are typically drawn into a clean bottle which is sealed and sent to a laboratory for analytical work.

Oxidation Inhibitor

Substance added in small quantities to a petroleum product to increase its oxidation resistance, thereby lengthening its service or storage life; also called anti-oxidant. An oxidation inhibitor may work in one of these ways: (1) by combining with and modifying peroxides (initial oxidation products) to render them harmless, (2) by decomposing the peroxides, or (3) by rendering an oxidation catalyst inert.

Oxidation Stability

Ability of a lubricant to resist natural degradation upon contact with oxygen.

Polymerization

The chemical combination of similar-type molecules to form larger molecules.

Pour Point

Lowest temperature at which an oil or distillate fuel is observed to flow, when cooled under conditions prescribed by test method ASTM D 97. The pour point is 3°C (5°F) above the temperature at which the oil in a test vessel shows no movement when the container is held horizontally for five seconds.

Pour Stability

The ability of a pour depressed oil to maintain its original ASTM pour point when subjected to long-term storage at low temperature approximating winter conditions.

Process Oil

An oil that serves as a temporary or permanent component of a manufactured products. Aromatic process oils have good solvency characteristics; their applications include proprietary chemical formulations, ink oils, and extenders in synthetic rubbers. Naphthenic process oils are characterized by low pour points and good solvency properties. Paraffinic process oils are characterized by low aromatic content and light color.

Quenching Oil

(Also called heat treating oil) a high-quality, oxidation-resistant petroleum oil used to cool metal parts during their manufacture, and is often preferred to water because the oil’s slower heat transfer lessens the possibility of cracking or warping of the metal. A quenching oil must have excellent oxidation and thermal stability, and should yield clean parts, essentially free of residue. In refining terms, a quenching oil is an oil introduced into high temperature vapors of cracked (see cracking) petroleum fractions to cool them.

Refining

A series of processes for converting crude oil and its fractions to finished petroleum products. Following distillation, a petroleum fraction may undergo one or more additional steps to purify or modify it. These refining steps include; thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, polymerization, alkylation, reforming, hydrocracking, hydroforming, hydrogenation, hydrogen treating, hydrofining, solvent extraction, dewaxing, deoiling, acid treating, clay filtration, and deasphalting. Refined lubricating oils may be blended with other lube stocks, and additives may be incorporated, to impart special properties.

Refraction

The change of direction or speed of light as it passes from one medium to another.

Rerefining

A process of reclaiming used lubricant oils and restoring them to a condition similar to that of virgin stocks by filtration, clay adsorption or more elaborate methods.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the weight of a given volume of material to the weight of an equal volume of water.

Surface Filtration

Filtration which primarily retains contaminant on the influent surface.

Surface Tension

The contractile surface force of a liquid by which it tends to assume a spherical form and to present the least possible surface. It is expressed in dynes/cm or ergs/cm2.

Total Acid Number (TAN)

The quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is required to neutralize all acidic constituents present in 1 gram of sample.

Total Base Number (TBN)

The quantity of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide that is required to neutralize all basic constituents present in 1 gram of sample.

Turbine Oil

A top-quality rust- and oxidation-inhibited (R&O) oil that meets the rigid requirements traditionally imposed on steam-turbine lubrication. Quality turbine oils are also distinguished by good demulsibility, a requisite of effective oil-water separation. Turbine oils are widely used in other exacting applications for which long service life and dependable lubrication are mandatory. Such compressors, hydraulic systems, gear drives, and other equipment. Turbine oils can also be used as heat transfer fluids in open systems, where oxidation stability is of primary importance.

Vacuum Dehydration

A method which involves drying or freeing of moisture through a vacuum process.

Vacuum Separator

A separator that utilizes subatmospheric pressure to remove certain gases and liquids from another liquid because of their difference in vapor pressure.

Viscosity

Measurement of a fluid’s resistance to flow. The common metric unit of absolute viscosity is the poise, which is defined as the force in dynes required to move a surface one square centimeter in area past a parallel surface at a speed of one centimeter per second, with the surfaces separated by a fluid film one centimeter thick. In addition to kinematic viscosity, there are other methods for determining viscosity, including Saybolt Universal Viscosity (SUV), Saybolt Furol viscosity, Engier viscosity, and Redwood viscosity. Since viscosity varies in inversely with temperature, its value is meaningless until the temperature at which it is determined is reported.

Viscosity Grade

Any of a number of systems which characterize lubricants according to viscosity for particular applications, such as industrial oils, gear oils, automotive engine oils, automotive gear oils, and aircraft piston engine oils.

Wear Inhibitor

An additive which protects the rubbing surfaces against wear, particularly from scuffing, if the hydrodynamic film is ruptured.

An analytical technique whereby a complex substance is adsorbed on a solid or liquid substrate and progressively eluted by a flow of a substance (the eluant) in which the components of the substance under investigation are differentially soluble. The eluant can be a liquid or a gas. When the substrate is filter paper and the eluant a liquid, a chromatogram of colored bands can be developed by use of indicators. For gas chromatography, electronic detectors are normally used to indicate passage of the various components from the system.

Coalescor

A separator that divides a mixture or emulsion of two immiscible liquids using the interfacial tension between the two liquids and the difference in wetting of the two liquids on a particular porous medium.

Compounded Oil

A petroleum oil to which has been added other chemical substances.

Dehydrator

A separator that removes water from the system fluid.

Density

The mass of a unit volume of a substance. Its numerical value varies with the units used.

Desorption

Opposite of absorption or adsorption. In filtration, it relates to the downstream release of particles previously retained by the filter.

Detergent Oil

Is a lubricating oil possessing special sludge-dispersing properties usually conferred on the oil by the incorporation of special additives. Detergent oils hold formed sludge particles in suspension and thus promote cleanliness especially in internal-combustion engines. However detergent oils do not contain “detergents” such as those used for cleaning of laundry or dishes. Also detergent oils do not clean already “dirty” engines, but rather keep in suspension the sludge that petroleum oil forms so that the engine remains cleaner for longer period. The formed sludge particles are either filtered out by Oil Filters or drained out when oil is changed.

Dielectric Strength

A measure of the ability of an insulating material to withstand electric stress (voltage) without failure. Fluids with high dielectric strength (usually expressed in volts or kilovolts) are good electrical insulators. (ASTM Designation D 877.)

Electrical Insulating Oil

A high-quality oxidation-resistant oil refined to give long service as a dielectric and coolant for electrical equipment, most commonly transformers. An insulating oil must resist the effects of elevated temperatures, electrical stress, and contact with air, which can lead to sludge formation and loss of insulation properties. It must be kept dry, as water is detrimental to dielectric strength – the minimum voltage required to produce an electric arc through an oil sample, as measured by test method ASTM D 877.

Environmental Contaminant

All material and energy present in and around an operating system, such as dust, air moisture, chemicals, and thermal energy.

Filtration

The physical or mechanical process of separating insoluble particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or liquid, by passing the fluid through a filter medium that will not allow the particulates to pass through it.

Filtration (Beta) Ratio

The ratio of the number of particles greater than a given size in the influent fluid to the number of particles greater than the same size in the effluent fluid.

Fire point (Clevelend Open Cup)

The temperature to which a combustible liquid must be heated so that the released vapor will burn continuously when ignited under specified conditions.

Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup)

The temperature to which a combustible liquid must be heated to give off sufficient vapor to form momentarily a flammable mixture with air when a small flame is applied under specified conditions.

Floc Point

The temperature at which wax or solids separate in an oil

Foam Inhibitor

A substance introduced in a very small proportion to a lubricant or a coolant to prevent the formation of foam due to aeration of the liquid, and to accelerate the dissipation of any foam that may form

Gear Oil

A high-quality oil with good oxidation stability, load-carrying capacity, rust protection, and resistance to foaming, for service in gear housings and enclosed chain drives. Specially formulated industrial EP gear oils are used where highly loaded gear sets or excessive sliding action (as in worm gears) is encountered.

Inhibitor

Any substance that slows or prevents such chemical reactions as corrosion or oxidation.

In-line Filter

A filter assembly in which the inlet, outlet and filter element axes are in a straight line.

Interfacial Tension (IFT)

The energy per unit area present at the boundary of two immiscible liquids. It is usually expressed in dynes/cm

Ion Exchange

A transfer of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. The term normally denotes the processes of purification, separation and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with an insoluble (usually resinous) solid.

Mineral Seal Oil

A distillation fraction between kerosene and gas oil, widely used as a solvent oil in gas adsorption processes, as a lubricant for the rolling of metal foil, and as a base oil in many specialty formulations. Mineral seal oil takes its name – not from any sealing function – but from the fact that it originally replaced oil derived from seal blubber for use as an illuminant for signal lamps and lighthouses.

Multigrade Oil

An oil meeting the requirements of more than one SAE viscosity grade classification, and may therefore be suitable for use over a wider temperature range than a single-grade oil.

Neutralization Number

A measure of the total acidity or basicity of an oil; this includes organic or inorganic acids or bases or a combination thereof

Oil

A greasy, unctuous liquid of vegetable, animal, mineral or synthetic origin.

Oil Analysis

The routine activity of analyzing lubricant properties and suspended contaminants for the purpose of monitoring and reporting timely, meaningful and accurate information on lubricant and machine condition.

Oil Change

The act of replacing dirty oil with clean oil.

Oil Consumption

The amount of lubricating fluid that is consumed by a machine, production line, plant or company over a given period of time.

Oil Filter

A device which removes the inherent or introduced impurities from the oil that lubricates an internal-combustion engine.

Oil Flushing

A fluid circulation process that is designed to remove contamination and decomposition from a lubrication-based system.

Oil Oxidation

Occurs when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. The process is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts and the presence of water, acids, or solid contaminants. It leads to increased viscosity and deposit formation.

Oil Sampling

A procedure which involves the collection of a volume of fluid from lubricated or hydraulic machinery for the purpose of performing oil analysis. Samples are typically drawn into a clean bottle which is sealed and sent to a laboratory for analytical work.

Oxidation Inhibitor

Substance added in small quantities to a petroleum product to increase its oxidation resistance, thereby lengthening its service or storage life; also called anti-oxidant. An oxidation inhibitor may work in one of these ways: (1) by combining with and modifying peroxides (initial oxidation products) to render them harmless, (2) by decomposing the peroxides, or (3) by rendering an oxidation catalyst inert.

Oxidation Stability

Ability of a lubricant to resist natural degradation upon contact with oxygen.

Polymerization

The chemical combination of similar-type molecules to form larger molecules.

Pour Point

Lowest temperature at which an oil or distillate fuel is observed to flow, when cooled under conditions prescribed by test method ASTM D 97. The pour point is 3°C (5°F) above the temperature at which the oil in a test vessel shows no movement when the container is held horizontally for five seconds.

Pour Stability

The ability of a pour depressed oil to maintain its original ASTM pour point when subjected to long-term storage at low temperature approximating winter conditions.

Process Oil

An oil that serves as a temporary or permanent component of a manufactured products. Aromatic process oils have good solvency characteristics; their applications include proprietary chemical formulations, ink oils, and extenders in synthetic rubbers. Naphthenic process oils are characterized by low pour points and good solvency properties. Paraffinic process oils are characterized by low aromatic content and light color.

Quenching Oil

(Also called heat treating oil) a high-quality, oxidation-resistant petroleum oil used to cool metal parts during their manufacture, and is often preferred to water because the oil’s slower heat transfer lessens the possibility of cracking or warping of the metal. A quenching oil must have excellent oxidation and thermal stability, and should yield clean parts, essentially free of residue. In refining terms, a quenching oil is an oil introduced into high temperature vapors of cracked (see cracking) petroleum fractions to cool them.

Refining

A series of processes for converting crude oil and its fractions to finished petroleum products. Following distillation, a petroleum fraction may undergo one or more additional steps to purify or modify it. These refining steps include; thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, polymerization, alkylation, reforming, hydrocracking, hydroforming, hydrogenation, hydrogen treating, hydrofining, solvent extraction, dewaxing, deoiling, acid treating, clay filtration, and deasphalting. Refined lubricating oils may be blended with other lube stocks, and additives may be incorporated, to impart special properties.

Refraction

The change of direction or speed of light as it passes from one medium to another.

Rerefining

A process of reclaiming used lubricant oils and restoring them to a condition similar to that of virgin stocks by filtration, clay adsorption or more elaborate methods.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the weight of a given volume of material to the weight of an equal volume of water.

Surface Filtration

Filtration which primarily retains contaminant on the influent surface.

Surface Tension

The contractile surface force of a liquid by which it tends to assume a spherical form and to present the least possible surface. It is expressed in dynes/cm or ergs/cm2.

Total Acid Number (TAN)

The quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is required to neutralize all acidic constituents present in 1 gram of sample.

Total Base Number (TBN)

The quantity of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide that is required to neutralize all basic constituents present in 1 gram of sample.

Turbine Oil

A top-quality rust- and oxidation-inhibited (R&O) oil that meets the rigid requirements traditionally imposed on steam-turbine lubrication. Quality turbine oils are also distinguished by good demulsibility, a requisite of effective oil-water separation. Turbine oils are widely used in other exacting applications for which long service life and dependable lubrication are mandatory. Such compressors, hydraulic systems, gear drives, and other equipment. Turbine oils can also be used as heat transfer fluids in open systems, where oxidation stability is of primary importance.

Vacuum Dehydration

A method which involves drying or freeing of moisture through a vacuum process.

Vacuum Separator

A separator that utilizes subatmospheric pressure to remove certain gases and liquids from another liquid because of their difference in vapor pressure.

Viscosity

Measurement of a fluid’s resistance to flow. The common metric unit of absolute viscosity is the poise, which is defined as the force in dynes required to move a surface one square centimeter in area past a parallel surface at a speed of one centimeter per second, with the surfaces separated by a fluid film one centimeter thick. In addition to kinematic viscosity, there are other methods for determining viscosity, including Saybolt Universal Viscosity (SUV), Saybolt Furol viscosity, Engier viscosity, and Redwood viscosity. Since viscosity varies in inversely with temperature, its value is meaningless until the temperature at which it is determined is reported.

Viscosity Grade

Any of a number of systems which characterize lubricants according to viscosity for particular applications, such as industrial oils, gear oils, automotive engine oils, automotive gear oils, and aircraft piston engine oils.

Wear Inhibitor

An additive which protects the rubbing surfaces against wear, particularly from scuffing, if the hydrodynamic film is ruptured.

обновлено: August 19, 2014 автором: oksana