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Refrigeration Compressor Oil

compressor oil

Compressor oil. Oil in refrigeration compressors is in constant contact with the coolant. This factor and the operation in various environment sets specific requirements for the oil. The oil for refrigeration compressors is made from naphtha oil and synthetic oil with low pour point and high chemical stability.

The chemical stability of compressor oil is its inability to react with coolants that are based on fatty halogenated hydrocarbons, at high temperatures and pressures.

An important performance parameter of these oils is the ability to mutually dissolve with coolants. Another important factor is the temperature of wax sedimentation. To prevent damage to the metal surfaces of refrigerators, it is necessary to check corrosive properties of the oil and coolant mixture.

Composition of oil impurities in refrigeration compressors

During use, compressor oil in cold machines loses its operational properties. The main reason is the accumulation of impurities of different origin. The composition and content of these impurities is presented in Table 1. The data was obtained before oil replacement.

Table 1

The content of oil impurities in a refrigeration compressor.

Type of oil Content of impurities, % (mass)
solid particles inorganic asphaltenes carbenes and carbenoids water
HF-12-18 0,056 0,005 0,017
HF-12-18 0,159 0,032 0,078 0,034 traces
HF-12-18 0,02 0,003 0,013 0,049 absent
HF-12-18 0,034 0,003 0,024 0,004 absent

Purification of compressor oils

Used compressor oil, after being drained, falls under strict rules and requirements in most countries.

In most cases they require delivery of waste oil to special collection points or purification and regeneration of oil on site. Regeneration on site is more profitable for facilities with large amounts of waste oil, it saves on transportation of waste oil to collection points and saves on buying fresh oil.

GlobeCore designs and manufactures plants for purification and regeneration of compressor oils, which provide:

  • Water content nelow 10 ppm;
  • Air content below 0.25% (vacuum degassing);
  • Remove solid impurities up to 1 micron;
  • Extend the lifetime of oil and compressors;
  • Increase productivity of compressor equipment;
  • Reduce downtime of compressor equipment

Purification, clarification and regeneration of mineral oils and diesel fuel by the UVR-450/16 unit

Mineral oils. Industrial oil, turbine oil, transformer oil and compressor oils are used in difficult conditions of high temperatures, exposure to air, mechanical contamination, contamination with water etc. Over time, these oils lose their performance properties and need to be replaced or regenerated.

As for other petroleum products, for example, diesel fuel may lose its properties in long storage storage under exposure to sunlight, moisture, air and dust. All mineral oils change their color with time.

Based on the current market demand for oil restoration equipment, GlobeCore developed a universal UVR-450/16 unit  for purification, clarification and regeneration of mineral oils and diesel fuels. This equipment fully restores the properties of petroleum products. The recovered oils will not darken and may be used for its purpose, saving money.

The UVR-450/16 unit has the following advantages:

  • Manufactured in three versions: general purpose industrial frame, general purpose industrial container, fire and explosion proof;
  • Easy switching from one oil to another without structural reconfiguration;
  • Compact size;
  • Manual or automatic modes;
  • Does not require special placement.

The processing rate of UVR-450/16 in regeneration mode varies depending on the type of processed oil. For example, the processing rate of transformer oil is 0.3 m3/h, that of diesel fuel is 0.8 m3/h. Oil loss does not exceed 1.6% of the initial volume.

What to do with waste oil?

How to dispose of waste oil? If you are looking for an answer to this question, then you have a stock of oil larger than just one liter, formed as a result of operation of power transformers, rolling mills, turbines and other industrial equipment.

In fact, the problem of disposal of waste oil is not new, and it is not losing its relevance. The fact is that dumping of even small amounts of waste oil into the ground or waterways has negative consequences for the environment. Hundreds and thousands of liters of water become unfit for consumption; plants and animals die. It is dangerous for people too. Waste oils contain carcinogenic substances. That’s why it is against the law to discharge waste oil. The only way is to recycle used oil using the existing methods and machinery for oil disposal.

If the volume of used oil is relatively small, it should be disposed of at collection points. The authorities issue licenses for businesses which have the necessary equipment and capabilities of disposal of waste oils.

If the volume of used oil is large, then, in our opinion, it is necessary to consider the possibility of on-site regeneration to extend the life cycle of oil. GlobeCore provides a wide range of equipment for regeneration of waste oils with different degree of contamination. GlobeCore plants are versatile and work with transformer oil, industrial oil, turbine oil, transmission and other types of oil.

Regeneration equipment fully restores the operating properties of waste oils to standard values, and allows the oil to be re-used for its intended purpose.

Thus, regeneration saves funds on buying fresh oil for replacement, which becomes unnecessary. An even more important aspect is that regeneration does not produce waste, which contributes to the preservation of the planet.

Selective Refining of Oil Fractions

It is known that crude oil cannot be used as fuel. It must be processed before a marketable product is obtained, one of the stages of such processing is selective refining.

The general meaning of selective refining is the processing of crude oil or derivatives to improve the quality of oil fractions. Practically, this is done by selective interaction of solvents on the components of “black gold”. Then the solvent is evaporated from the refined and extracted solutions.

This method of processing allows to remove harmful and undesirable substances, such as asphalt and and tar, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with short side chains, heteroatomic compounds etc. The main purpose of selective refining is to obtain a refined oil fraction of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with long side chains, as well as paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons.

The product of selective refining, compared to the initial material, is more viscous and has higher setting point. It also has lighter color. But this product is not yet ready to be sold, so it undergoes deparaffinization to remove solid hydrocarbons. The resulting extract consists of the removed substances of dark color. Ir can be used as heating fuel, rubber softener or plasticizer. The most commonly used solvents are furfural and phenol.

Oil Cracking Is…

Cracking is a widely used chemical method of processing crude oil. The process emerged as a consequence of increased gasoline demand and increased the yield of gasoline fractions of oil to 50-60%. Cracking can be applied not only to crude oil, but also to its distillate fractions.

There are thermal and catalytic cracking processes. In the former case, the process occurs at high temperature, in the latter case it requires a catalyst. The efficiency of cracking is also influenced by pressure and duration.

Catalytic cracking is considered more efficient than thermal. This is due to the transformation of some unsaturated hydrocarbons to saturated, which improves the quality of the product. The method also has drawbacks, such as the quick exhaustion of catalyst, which must be quickly regenerated to restore its performance.

There is a method of ebullated bed cracking. It differs in the design of the reactor, which is combined with a regeneration unit. There are also designes with moving catalyst and circulation of catalyst between the reactor and the regenerator.

Desulfurization of diesel fuel

Desulfurization of diesel fuel. Thus, the consumer receives fuel with strictly limited sulfur content. Obviously, the less sulfur, the more expensive the product. A way to save on the fuel bill is to take lower grade diesel fuel and process it to satisfy the requirements of the vehicle fleet.

GlobeCore offers the desulfurization process based on the AVS-150 magnetic nano-mill and the UVR unit.

The process equipment for continuous desulfurization is a 1 cubic meter tank, a pump to supply the fuel to the AVS-150, a vessel with a dosage pump to supply reagent, a portioning device to supply ferromagnetic particles into the chamber of the AVS-150 and a UVR vacuum fuel regeneration unit.

The 1 cubic meter tank is filled with the fuel to process. The pump supplies it to the chamber of the AVS-150 along with the reagent from the 30 liter tank. After treatment in the unit, which only takes a fraction of a second, the fuel flows to the UVR unit, where is passes through a layer of adsorbent to remove the products of the reaction between the reagent and sulfur. The treatment and mixing of the reagent with the diesel fuel is performed by steel ferromagnetic particles. Particle wear is 5 grams per 1 hour of operation, that is, 0.01 gram per 1 liter of processed fuel. Particles are loaded automatically by a portioning device. The rate of processing is 0.5 m3/hour.

The efficiency of chemical processing depends on the intensity of mixing and completeness of reaction product removal. Intensive mixing of reagents, even at high temperature and low concentration of of solution, forms emulsions which require more time to separate. To intensify this process, the AVS is used to facilitate intensive mixing of the fuel with the reagent.

As a result of our tests, we reduced the amount of sulfur in diesel fuel from 337 to 8 mg/kg, while retaining other important quality parameters, such as flashpoint, fraction content etc.

GlobeCore Diesel Fuel Desulfurization Unit

Diesel Fuel Desulfurization. Sulfur is a common component in crude oil, where it can be present both in elementary form and in the form hydrogen sulfide and organic substances, such as disulfides, mercaptan etc. Generally, the influence of sulfur and its compounds on oil products is negative, due to its corrosive properties. That is why it is recommended to eliminate sulfur and hydrogen sulfide and limit the content of mercaptan. The content of other sulfur compounds is regulated by such parameter as “sulfur content by weight”.

The strict the requirements on sulfur content in fuel, the deeper the purification and the cost of the process. This is the reason that this chemical element is present in practically all fuels in the market.

Nevertheless, the weight part of sulfur in oil products is limited by regulations for environmental reasons. Sulfur compounds increase toxicity of exhaust gases and are under close scrutiny of environmental protection agencies.

Desulfurization begins at the stage of crude oil refining. This is achieved in the processes of catalytic hydrotreatment, biodesulfurization, oxidation of sulfur compounds by hydroperoxides etc. The content of sulfur in finished product is also one of the criteria of grading it. Euro-2 diesel fuel contains no more than 500 mg/kg of sulfur compounds, Euro-3 – 350 mg/kg, Euro-4 – 50 mg/kg and Euro-5 -10 mg/kg.

Crude Oil Reforming

In general case, crude oil reforming is the process of converting normal and cyclic paraffins in oil to aromatic paraffins. The process occurs at 500-550ºС in the presence of catalysts. Reforming is necessary to improve the quality of low octane gasoline by increasing the amount of aromatic hydrocarbons.

No refinery operates without catalytic reforming. Since most straight run gasolines are low octane, additional processes are required. Reforming allows to produce 80-85% gasoline with octane number of 80-90.

Reforming can be performed also on secondary distillates, such as gasolines from coking, thermal and hydrocracking. The yield of the above fractions is relatively low (15-20%), so the capacity of catalytic cracking units exceeds that of reforming units.

The development of catalytic reforming is stimulated by the demands of the chemical industry for monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are used in production of synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents etc.

The main reaction of catalytic reforming is hydrogenation of hexavalent naphthenes. Their ability to transform into aromatic hydrocarbons at 300ºС in the presence of nickel and platinum group metals was first discovered in 1911.

Heavy Fuel Oil: Considerations on Use

Heavy Fuel Oil

Winter brings the need to heat buildings. Natural gas and diesel fuel are relatively expensive to use as heat sources, so people more and more look at alternatives. This is a good time to discuss heavy fuel oil. The main advantage of this product is ease of storage and transportation.

Heavy fuel oil is made from straight run diesel and secondary distillation fractions (distillates of catalytic and thermal cracking and coking). Fuel oil is somewhat heavier than diesel. Regulations such as iodine and cetane number, as well as cloud point are not mandatory for heavy fuel oil. If the product is made from sour crude, sulfur content may reach 1.1%.

Here are the main operational properties of heavy fuel oil:

  • ash – below 0.02%;
  • settling point below -5ºС;
  • flashpoint 45ºС;
  • color – colorless, black;
  • density– not regulated. This does not have to be measured.

So as to improve the low temperature properties of the product, special additives are used, which are synthesized from ethylene and vinyl acetate copolymers.

Heavy fuel oil is mostly sold for household heating.

The advantages of heavy fuel oil are:

  • high calorific value with low consumption rate;
  • price lower than traditional energy sources;
  • low settling point and low viscosity.

How many cubic meters of oil can be regenerated with one load of sorbent in the UVR-0.1?

sorbent

When using the UVR-0.1 oil cleaning and regeneration unit, the most frequent questions are the average amount of sorbent used and the amount of oil processed by this sorbent.

The UVR units for cleaning and regeneration of oil use a combination of thermal vacuum filtration with a special sorbent

The main feature of this equipment is the ability to work with various types of oil: transformer, turbine and industrial oils, diesel and heating oil, gas condensate, kerosene, etc.

It is important to understand that each of these oil products has different physical and chemical properties, and the amount of absorber used for regeneration may be different in each case. In general, the sorbent consumption is 3-17% of oil weight and 1-7% of fuel weight.

The UVR-120 unit is loaded with 120 kg of sorbent and it is possible to calculate the amount of oil cleaned with one load. With 120 kg it is possible to clean 700-4000 liters, which corresponds to 0.7 – 4 m3.

The consumption of absorber also depends on the degree of oil pollution and its acidity. The dirtier the oil and the more is its acid number, the greater amount of absorber is required to achieve the desired result.